PiTree Traces


We provide four sets of traces for the emulation:

  1. FCC18 is the measurement results of the broadband network in 2018 provided by FCC, with a median bandwidth improvement by 4.04x compared to 2016. (origin)

  2. HSR. We adopt the 4G measurements on high-speed rails in 2018 to construct a scenario with violently fluctuating 4G bandwidths. (origin)

  3. Ghent. We use the 4G measurements on foot, bicycle, bus, tram, train, and car in 2016 by Ghent University, which are moderately fluctuating 4G bandwidths. (origin)

  4. Lab. Finally, we also measure the indoor 4G bandwidth during the period of 2019-07-02 to 2019-08-15. To ensure the comprehensiveness of the dataset, we interchangeably use four congestion control algorithms (BBR, Cubic, Vegas, and HighSpeed). The indoor traces construct a scenario with gently fluctuating 4G bandwidths.



Each line of the file is in the following format:

timestamp bandwidth

The units of timestamp and bandwidth are second and Mbps.

The dataset could be directly downloaded with this link.


The size of the Mahimahi-format traces is too large. Therefore, we provide a script to convert the sim-format traces to mahimahi-format.

Usage of sim2mahimahi.py
python sim2mahimahi.py -i hd_sim/ghent/ -o hd_mahimahi/ghent/